How to do CPR with simple steps

Hello Friends ! , I want to talk to you about CPR, which stands for Cardio pulmonary Resuscitation. We use CPR when someone has collapsed and is not breathing, because it can keep people alive until emergency services arrive. Learning these simple life-saving skills is as easy as ABC – all you have to remember is the “Doctor’s ABC”.

Doctor’s ABC :-

D is for Danger:

First, look around carefully to make sure the area is safe for yourself and others before approaching.

R is for Response:

Shake them gently by the shoulders and ask them loudly “Are you alright?” If there is no response, you need to…

S is for :

Shout for help, as any assistance will be helpful.

A is for Airway:

Gently tilt the head back like this, to open up the airway.

B is for Breathing:

Look, Listen and Feel for signs of normal breathing: LOOK for normal chest movements, LISTEN for normal breathing sounds and try to FEEL their breath against your face. Do this for no more than 10 seconds. If there is no sign of breathing, or if they are breathing in an unusual, noisy way, we need to start CPR. First, make sure that an ambulance is on its way. If you have someone else with you, ask them to make the call. Putting the phone on speaker mode is useful as the ambulance service can talk you through the steps.

C is for Circulation:

Circulation means the flow of blood around the body, and when the heart stops pumping, we need to take over this role by pushing down hard and fast on the chest. Start by placing the heel of one hand at the centre of the person’s chest and interlock your fingers like this. With arms straightened, press down hard and fast, letting the chest come back up fully each time. Fast means around 2 times every second (metronomesound) and hard means that the chest needs to go down by about 5 centimetres. This might sound a lot but you do need to push hard for it to be effective. If you have been trained, you can give 2 ‘rescuebreaths’ after every 30 compressions, as this helps provide some oxygen. However, if you have not been trained or are not comfortable, just keep going with ‘Hands-only’ continuous chest compressions. If someone else is with you, swap over if you begin to feel tired, and don’t stop until either a health professional takes over,or the person is definitely breathing normally.

Sometimes, we can add another step – ‘D’. D is for Defibrillation, which is about delivering a shock to restart the heartbeat. Some public areas and workplaces have an easy-to-use defibrillator on site, called an Automatic External Defibrillator, or AED. Automatic means that it is the machine that decides what to do, so you can’t go wrong, and it even talks you through the steps. If there is no AED available, keep going with CPR until the ambulance arrives. That’s it! So to recap: remember DR’S ABC and if you have it,
D. That’s D for Danger,
R for response.
S for shout for help,
A for Airway,
B for Breathing,
C for Circulation

and D for Defibrillation.
In this Health Sketch, we’ve explain you the simple steps you can take to help someone who has collapsed, is not breathing, or not breathing normally. Why not take a training course to practice these steps. Share this knowledge with friends and family to make sure we all know what to do.

The best places to inject insulin into the body and how to do it

Hii Friends…One of the most mind-boggling facts  is Today I am going to give you information about best places to inject insulin into the body and how to do it.
Please read before injecting your insulin.Your healthcare provider may recommend that you inject insulin using a syringe to help you control your blood sugar level. Injecting insulin with a syringe involves choosing an injection site, preparing the syringe and insulin, and then injecting the insulin into your body. Your healthcare professional will tell you what type of insulin you need as well as when and how much you need to inject. You would require alcohol wipes, your jug of insulin, another syringe for each infusion, and a sharps removal compartment to discard the pre-owned syringes.”

Syringes have three parts:
1. The tip, which connects with the needle
2. The barrel, or outside part, on which the scales are printed
3. The plunger, which fits inside the barrel

A disposable syringe has the following parts:
A barrel, a plunger,a needle cap, and a needle. Selecting the Injection Site Before injecting your insulin, select the injection site on your body. The areas for insulin injection include the abdomen or belly, upper arms, the thighs, and the buttocks.When selecting the injection site, be sure you use a different spot each time you give yourself an injection. Leave at least one inch away from the last injection spot, inject your insulin at least two inches from your belly button, and choose a spot at least one inch or farther from any scar or mole.

Preparing the Syringe and Insulin :-

Step One:


Wash your hands with soap and water and then dry them.

Step Two:

If your insulin needs to be mixed, gently roll the bottle between your hands. Do not shake the bottle because it may cause bubbles to form in your insulin. Before injecting yourself, check the insulin in the bottle to make sure it is the type of insulin your doctor prescribed for you, not past the expiration date, and the insulin is free of clumps.

Step Three:

Remove the cap from your insulin bottle. Use an alcohol wipe to clean the rubber stop peron the top of the bottle.

Step Four:

Remove the syringe from its package. “Make bound to utilize another syringe whenever you infuse insulin.”

Step Five:

Remove the needle cap from the syringe. Do not touch the needle or allow it to touch any surface, and do not use the syringe if the needle is bent. Some syringes have a cap over the plunger that you may need to remove as well.

Step Six:

Pull back the plunger to draw in an amount of air that is equal to your insulin dose.

Step Seven:

Hold your insulin bottle securely on a flat surface.Push the needle through the rubber on the top of the bottle. Push the plunger to inject the air into the insulin bottle. Leave the needle in the bottle. This helps to keep the right amount of pressure in the bottle and makes it easier to draw insulin into the syringe.

Step Eight:

With the needle still within the bottle, turn the bottle and syringe the wrong way up .

Step Nine:

Pull back the plunger to fill the syringe will just a touch quite the insulin dose you need. If you see air bubbles, tap the barrel of the syringe with your finger to make them rise to the top. Slowly, push in the plunger just enough to push out the air and extra insulin.

Step Ten:

Carefully check to make sure the amount of insulin in the syringe matches your insulin dose. Pull the needle out of the bottle and carefully lay the syringe on a flat, clean surface. Make sure the needle does not touch anything.

Injecting the Insulin :-

Step One:

Clean your injection site with an alcohol wipe. Use a circular motion to wash a spot about two inches wide.

Step Two:

Pinch a two-inch fold of skin in the clean injection site.

Step Three:

Hold the syringe like a pencil and quickly insert the needle straight into your skin at a 90-degree angle. Make sure the whole needle enters your skin.

Step Four:

Push the plunger all the way down to inject the insulin into the fat tissue beneath your skin. Slowly, count to 5 before removing the needle to form sure you’ve got injected all of the insulin.

Step Five:

Pull the needle straight out to remove it.

Step Six:

Throw away the syringe into your sharps disposal container. Never throw your syringes or needles directly into the trash. Contact your healthcare provider if you have questions about injecting your insulin or if your blood sugar level stays above or below your target range.

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Top 8 easy ways to Unblock your Instagram action block with easy steps

      What’s up guys ! Swapnil Patil here and today I’m going to talk about the Action block on Instagram.
     So first of all what is an action block and why do they exist an Instagram action block is when you can’t complete an action with your account. For example, you’ll try and comment on a post and you’ll get a notification at popping up to tell you to slow down or you’ve been doing too many actions so it won’t let you take it any further and it’s really frustrating it stops you from being able to use Instagram pretty much you can’t put captions you can’t comment on post you can’t like posts you can’t follow people and it’s a big problem action block is a big problem. And now although the action block is trying to keep Instagram safe from spam bots and all that. Sometimes it can be very annoying when your account gets action blocked and you don’t even deserve to be action blocked.

I’m going to give you eight different ways that you can remove the action block as soon as possible and now some of these methods I have done myself and some of these methods I have found by doing research online and watching other people’s videos and online blogs and forums.

1) Edit Bio :-

First tip is to edit your Instagram bio, people say that if you edit your Instagram bio it makes you look a lot less like a bot so Instagram is more likely to remove the action block .

2) Install / Reinstall:-

Tip number two is just to uninstall and reinstall Instagram on your phone now this one I don’t think it would work in my opinion but people have said that it’s worked on other forums. The reason why I don’t think it’ll work is when you uninstall it Instagram saves your cookies and data on that phone any way so when you reinstall it, it will still have the kind of information. And I’m pretty sure an action block is linked with an account so that won’t necessarily work but try anyway .

3) Request form action blocked message :-

Tip number three is to send a request when the actual block message pops up now sometimes on the message you get the option to send a request saying they’ve made a mistake, sometimes it says tell us if you think we’ve made a mistake and then you just send a request saying that they have some times that has worked for people and if that doesn’t happen this is .

4) Report a Problem :-

Tip number four you just need to go into your settings, go into help, tap on are report a problem and then select something isn’t working and just say that you’ve been action blocked and you shouldn’t have been this has fix the problem for me before I’ve reported this a couple of times and then like a few hours later or the next day I don’t seem to have been action blocked anymore.

5) Use another device switch device data :-

Tip number five is to use another device and switch to data on that device the reason being is because action blocks are often linked to IP addresses so you could have action blocks across your entire phone meaning that all the Instagram accounts you use on your phone are going to be action blocked and the reason you have to switch to data is because if you switch to data you won’t use the same IP as your Wi-Fi address now a lot of the times this has been one of the best methods for me but I have had it occasionally where an action block has been linked to my account and is gone from one account from one device to another device but hopefully this should be one of the best solutions for you.

6) Delete third-party apps :-

Tip number six is to delete third-party apps and stop all BOTS now a lot of the time people have an ongoing action block because they’re running like Jarvee or Follow liker at the same time and it’s just causing them to constantly get action blocked this is because their bot software doesn’t look authentic at all and Instagram can tell it’s a bot software or they’re just doing way too many actions Instagram is constantly going to be blocking that account so I highly suggest if you are getting action block that you definitely slow down on the automation and remove third-party apps from your Instagram account .

7) Link your Instagram account to a Facebook page :-

Tip number seven is to link your Instagram account to a Facebook page now I’ve never done this myself but it kind of makes sense Instagram normally has the action Block in place to stop Instagram BOTS and spam accounts just taking over the platform so if you link it to a Facebook page it’s just going to look more real and authentic so Instagram is more likely to unblock your account and I’ve never tried this one myself but again people have said that it’s worked for them .

8)  Wait :-

Tip number eight is probably the best one and the easiest one although you have to be patience it’s just to wait it out most of the time my action block slast a minimum of eight hours and a maximum of 24 I know sometimes they can be like weeks which is ridiculous there’s not much you can do to be honest if none of the previous tips worked for you so yeah you just got to wait it out and make sure that you avoid doing something that will cause you to get action blocked in the future and I know the most frustrating thing is that a lot of the time people get action blocked for literally doing nothing like I’ve had an Instagram account where I have maybe gone on it once every two days and I go on it once to follow one person and I just get action block then it is really annoying it doesn’t make sense. but now I’ve given you my tips I’m just going to give you a couple of tips to avoid getting blocked in the future so like I said if you’re using Instagram BOTS and software if you get an action block it is normal don’t be surprised most of the time they don’t last more than 12 hours but you can’t expect to have Java on full-blast and not get an action block if you’re using it at the same time and then my second tip is that if you’re not using any software just try and make sure you’re not abusing the follow button that you’re not trying to follow 200 people within an hour throughout the entire day because obviously you’re gonna action block them and then my third tip is probably try and not run more than five accounts from the same IP address try and switch IP addresses I like to keep it three accounts to my IP address but action blocks can be to the entire IP so if it’s seeing loads of different Instagram accounts running different actions from the same IP it’s most likely that a few of these accounts are getting action blocked.

Thank You For visit !


               Hii FriendsToday I am going to give you information about Biomolecules in cell.Biology and its subfields of biochemistry and molecular biology study biomolecules and their reactions. Most biomolecules are organic compounds, and just four elements—oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen—make up 96% of the human body’s mass. But many other elements, such as the various biomolecules, are present in small amounts.Let me explain some information about Biomolecules.

Biomolecules in the cell

A. Carbohydrates :
         The word carbohydrates ‘hydrates of carbon’. They are also called saccharides. They are biomolecules made from just three elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with the general formula (CH,O),. They contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as in water (2:1). Carbohydrates can be broken down (oxidized) to release energy. The means Based on number of sugar units, carbohydrates are classified into three types namely, monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.

1. Monosaccharides:
         These are the simplest sugars having crystalline structure, sweet taste and soluble in water. They cannot be further hydrolysed into smaller molecules. They are the building blocks or monomers of complex carbohydrates. They have the general molecular formula (CH,O), where n can be 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. They can be classified as triose, tetrose, pentose, etc.
       Monosaccharides  containing the aldehyde (-CHO) group are classified as aldoses e.g. glucose, xylose, and those with a ketone (-C=O) group are classified as ketoses. eg .ribulose, fructose.

Structure of Glucose :-

a. Glucose : It is the most important fuel in living cells. Its concentration in the human blood is about 90mg per 100ml of blood. The small size and solubility in water of glucose molecules allows them to pass through the cell membrane into the cell. Energy is released when the molecules are metabolised by cellular respiration.

b. Galactose : It looks very similar to glucose molecules. They can also exist in a and B forms. Galactose react with glucose to form the dissacharide lactose. However, glucose and galactose cannot be easily converted into one another. Galactose cannot play the same role in respiration as glucose.

c. Fructose : It is the fruit sugar and chemically it is ketohexose but it has a five-atom ring rather than a six-atom ring. Fructose reacts with glucose to form the sucrose, a disaccharide.

2. Disaccharides :
      Monosaccharides are rare in nature.Most sugars found in nature are disaccharides. Disaccharides is formed when two monosaccharides react by condensation reaction releasing a water molecule. This process requires enegy. A glycosidic bond forms and holds the two monosaccharide units together.
       Sucrose, lactose and maltose are examples of disaccharides. Sucrose is a non- reducing sugar since it lacks free aldehyde or ketone group. Lactose and maltose are reducing sugars. Lactose also exists in beta form, which is made from B-galactose and B-glucose. Disaccharides are soluble in water, but they are too big to pass through the cell membrane by diffusion. They are broken down in the small intestine during digestion. Thus formed monosaccharides then pass into the blood and through cell membranes into the cells.

Structure of Maltose :-

Monosaccharides are used very quickly by cells but if a cell is not in need of all the energy released immediately then it may get stored. Monosaccharides are converted into disaccharides in the cell by condensation reactions, which result in the formation of polysaccharides as macromolecules. These are too big to escape from the cell.

  1. Polysaccharides : Monosaccharidescan undergo a series of condensation reactions, adding one unit after the other to the chain till a very large molecule (polysaccharide) is formed. This is called polymerization. Polysaccharides down by hydrolysis are broken into monosaccharides. The properties of a polysaccharide molecule depend on its length, branching, folding and coiling.

a. Starch : Starch is a stored food in the plants. It exists in two forms: amylose and amylopectin. Both are made from a-glucose. Amylose is an unbranched polymer of a-glucose. The molecules coil into a helical structure. It forms a colloidal suspension in hot water. Amylopectin is a branched polymer of a-glucose. It is completely insoluble in water.

Structure of Starch

b. Glycogen : It is amylopectin with very short distances between the branching side-chains. Glycogen is stored in animal body particularly in liver and muscles from where it is hydrolysed as per need to produce glucose.

c. Cellulose : It is a polymer made from B-glucose molecules and the polymer molecules are ‘straight’. Cellulose serves to form the cell walls in plant cells. These are much tougher than cell membranes. This toughness is due to the arrangement of glucose units in the polymer chain and the hydrogen-bonding between neighbouring chains.

Biological significance of Carbohydrates:
              It supplies energy for metabolism. Glucose is the main substrate for ATP synthesis. Lactose, a disaccharide is present in milk provides energy to lactating babies. Polysaccharide serves as structural component of cell membrane, cell wall and reserved food as starch and glycogen.

B. Lipids:

        These are group of substances with greasy consistency with long hydrocarbon chain containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. In lipids, hydrogen to oxygen ratio is greater than 2:1 (in carbohydrates it is always 2:1). Lipid is a broader term used for fatty acids and their derivatives. They are soluble in organic solvents (non-polar solvents). Let’s understand what fatty acids are. Fatty acids are organic acids which are composed of hydrocarbon chain ending in carboxyl group (-COOH). They can be saturated fatty acids with no double bonds between the carbon atoms of the hydrocarbon chain. Palmitic and stearic acids found in all animal and plant fats are examples of saturated fatty acids.

          Unsaturated fatty acids are with one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms of the hydrocarbon chain. Oleic acid found in nearly all fats and linoleic acid found in many seed oils are examples of unsaturated fatty acids.
         These fatty acids are basic molecules which form different kinds of lipids. Lipids may be classified as simple, compound and derived lipids.

Simple Lipids :
            These are esters of fatty acids with various alcohols. Fats and waxes are simple lipids. Fats are esters of fatty acids with glycerol (CH,OH-CHOH-CH,OH). Triglycerides are three molecules of fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol. Generally, unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature and are called oils. Unsaturated fatty acids are hydrogenated to produce fats e.g. Vanaspati ghee.
         Fats are a nutritional source with high calorific value. Fats act as reserved food materials. In plants it is stored in seeds to nourish embryo during germination. In animals fat is stored in the adipocytes of the adipose tissue. Fats deposited in subcutaneous tissue act as an insulator and minimise loss of body heat. Fats deposited around the internal organs act as cushions to absorb mechanical shocks.            
           Wax is another example of simple lipid. They are esters of long chain fatty acids with long chain alcohols. They are most abundant in the blood, the gonads and the sebaceous glands of the skin. Waxes are not as readily hydrolysed as fats. They are solid at ordinary temperature.   
      Waxes from water insoluble coating on hair and skin in animals , waxes from an outer coating on stems , leaves and fruits.


Compound lipids : 
         These are ester of fatty acids containing other groups like phosphate (Phospholipids), sugar (glycolipids), etc. They contain a molecule of glycerol, two molecules of fatty acids and a phosphate group or simple sugar. Some phospholipids such as lecithin also have a nitrogenous compound attached to the phosphate group. Phospholipids have both hydrophilic polar groups (phosphate and nitrogenous group) and hydrophobic non-polar groups (hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids). Phospholipids contribute in the formation of cell membrane. Glycolipids contain glycerol, fatty acids, simple sugars such as galactose and nitrogenous base. They are also called cerebrosides. Large amounts of them have been found in the brain white matter and myelin sheath.

Derived lipids :
            They are composed of fused hydrocarbon rings (steroid nucleus) and a long hydrocarbon side chain. One of the most common sterol is cholesterol. It is widely distributed in all cells of the animal body, but particularly in nervous tissue. Cholesterol exists either free or as cholesterol ester.
       Adrenocorticoids, sex hormones (progesterone, testosterone) and vitamin D are synthesised from cholesterol. Cholesterol is not found in plants. In plants, sterols exist chiefly as Phytosterols. Yam Plant (Dioscorea) produces a steroid compound called diosgenin. It is used in the manufacture of antifertility pills. i.e. birth control pills.

C .Proteins :

           Protein is a macronutrient that is essential to building muscle mass. It is commonly found in animal products, though is also present in other sources, such as nuts and legumes. 
Structure of Protein

Classification of Proteins:
        On the basis of structure , Proteins are classified into three categories :

Simple proteins:
            Simple proteins on hydrolysis yield only amino acids. These are soluble one or more solvents. Simple proteins may be soluble in water. Histones of nuclcoproteins histones are not coagulated by heat. Albumins are also soluble in water but they get coagulated are soluble in water. Globular molecules of on heating. Albumins are widely distributed c.g. egg albumin, serum albumin and legumelin of pulses are albumins.

Conjugated proteins :
          Conjugated proteins consist of a simple protein united with some non-protein substance. The non-protein group is called prosthetic group c.g. haemoglobin. Globin is the protein and the iron containing pigment haem is the prosthetic group. Similarly, nucleoproteins have nucleic acids as prosthetic group. On this basis, proteins are classified as glycoproteins and mucoproteins. Mucoproteins are carbohydrate-protein complexes e.g. mucin of saliva and heparin of blood. Lipopoteins are lipid-protein complexes e.g. conjugate protein found in brain, plasma membrane, milk etc.

   Derived Proteins :
             These proteins are not found in nature as such. These proteins are derived from native protein molecules on hydrolysis. Metaproteins, peptones are derived proteins. Derived proteins.


D. Nucleic Acids :

          Swiss biochemist, Friederich Miescher (1869) discovered and isolated nucleic acids from the pus cells. By 1938, it became evident that nucleic acids are of two types- deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) and ribose nucleic acid (RNA). DNA is found in chloroplasts and mitochondria. DNA is the hereditary material in most of the organisms. The nucleic acids are among the largest of all molecules found in living beings. They contain three types of molecules a) 5 carbon sugar, b) Phosphoric acid and c) Nitrogen containing bases. Three join together to form a nucleotide of nucleic acid.
Structure of Nucleic Acids

1.Structure of DNA :
          DNA has a double-helix structure.The sugar and phosphate lie on the outside of the helix, forming the backbone of the DNA. The nitrogenous bases are stacked in the interior, like the steps of a staircase, in pairs; the pairs are bound to each other by hydrogen bonds. Every base pair in the double helix is separated from the next base pair by 0.34 nm.
           The two strands of the helix run in opposite directions, meaning that the 5′ carbon end of one strand will face the 3′ carbon end of its matching strand.
           Only certain types of base pairing are allowed. For example, a certain purine can only pair with a certain pyrimidine. This means A can pair with T, and G can pair with C. This is known as the base complementary rule. In other words, the DNA strands are complementary to each other. If the sequence of one strand is AATTGGCC, the complementary strand would have the sequence TTAACCGG. During DNA replication, each strand is copied, resulting in a daughter DNA double helix containing one parental DNA strand and a newly synthesized strand.

2. Structure of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA):
             Another nucleic acid found in the living organisms is Ribose nucleic acid. In most of the organisms it is not found to be hereditary material but in certain organisms like tobacco mosaic virus, it is the hereditary material. Like DNA, ribose nucleic acid also consists of polynucleotide chain with the difference that it consists of single strand. In some cases e.g. Reovirus and wound tumour virus, RNA is double stranded. The nucleotides of RNA have ribose sugar instead of the deoxyribose sugar as in the case of DNA. Three types of cellular RNAs have been distinguished : (a) messenger RNA (b) ribosomal RNA (c) transfer RNA
        mRNA carries genetic information for arranging amino acids in definite sequence. It  is  linear polynucleotide. It accounts 3% of cellular RNA. Its molecular weight is several million. mRNA molecule carrying information to form a complete polypeptide chain is called cistron. Size of mRNA is related to the size of message it contains. Synthesis of mRNA begins at 5′ end of DNA strand and terminates at 3′ end.
             rRNA form 50-60% part of ribosomes. It accounts 80-90% of the cellular RNA. It is synthesized in nucleus. Kurland (1960) discovered it. It gets coiled here and there due to intrachain complementary base pairing. 
           tRNA molecules are much smaller consisting of 70-80 nucleotides. It is also single stranded but to number of complementary base sequences after pairing, it is shaped like clover-leaf (Holley, 1965). Each tRNA can pick up particular amino acid. Following four parts can be recognized on tRNA 1) DHU arm (Dihydroxyuracil loop / amino acid recognition site 2) Amino acid binding site 3) Anticodon loop / codon recognition site site. 4) Ribosome recognition In the anticodon loop of tRNA, three unpaired nucleotides are present called as anticodon which pair with codon present on mRNA. The specific amino acids is attached at the 3′ end in acceptor stem of clover leaf of tRNA.

what is the (journey) History of stethoscope ?

History of stethoscope


Hii friends… Today I am going to inform you about the (journey) History of stethoscope. Let me explain some parts of the stethoscope.


It all commenced with a paper tube.Modern stethoscopes: 200 years in the making.

In 1816, French health practitioner Rene Laennec invented the first stethoscope .he use of a long, rolled paper tube to funnel the sound from the patient’s chest to his ear. Accounts fluctuate on precisely how Laennec created his invention, however it used to be clear from the establishing that the acoustic homes of the tube radically increased Laennec’s capacity to hear quintessential coronary heart and lung sounds. Laennec coined the title “stethoscope” from two Greek words: stethos (chest) and skopein (to view or see). He additionally referred to as his approach of the use of the stethoscope “auscultation” from “auscultare” (listen).

• what is the (journey) History of stethoscope ?

History of stethoscope

Twenty-five years later, George P. Camman of New York, developed the first stethoscope with an earpiece for every ear. This layout would be used for extra than a hundred years with very few modifications.

What is the story behind the invention of stethoscope?

Parts of Stethoscope:

And now we know the history of stethoscope.Parts of stethoscope.Now I am going to explain the types of stethoscope

History of stethoscope
Parts of Stethoscope
  1. Earpieces – 2
  2. Binaurals -2
  3. Tubing – 1
  4. Bell -1
  5. Diaphrugm -1

  1. The rubber or plastic ear pieces It It should fit snugly and comfortable in to the nurse’s ears.
  2. • The binaurals
    It should be angled and strong enough. To ensure the best reception of sound, the earpieces follow the contour of the ear canal pointing towards ear canal when the stethoscope is in the car.
  3. The polyvinyl tubing
    It should be flexible and 30 to 40 cm or 12 to 18 inches in length.
 History of stethoscope

4. • The chest piece.
It consists of bell and diaphragm that are rotated into position. The diaphragm or bell must be in proper position during listening of the heart sounds through the stethoscope. The diaphragm is the circular, flat portion of the chest piece covered with a thin plastic disk. It transmits high pitched sounds created by high velocity movement of air and blood. Bowel, lung and heart sounds are auscultated using the diaphragm. The bell of the chest piece is usually surrounded by a rubber ring. The ring avoids chilling the client, with cold metal when placed on the chest. The bell transmits low pitched sounds cre- ated by the low velocity movement of blood. The car piece should be removed regularly and cleaned of cerumen (car wax) with spirit swab. The bell and diaphragm are cleaned of dust and body oils. Clean the tubing with mild soap and water or alcohol swabs.
Site of Pulse:-
A pulse may be measured in many sites

History of stethoscope
  1. Temporal: Site is superior and lateral to the eye over the temporal lobe.
  2. Carotid: Along medial edge of sterno cleido mastoid muscle of the neck.
  3. Apical: Fourth to fifth intercostal space at left mid claviclular line.
  4. Brachial: Groove between biceps and triceps muscles at the ante-cubital fossa.
  5. Radial: Radial or thumb side of forearm at wrist.
  6. Ulnar: Ulnar side of foream at wrist.
  7. Femoral: Below the inguinal ligament, midway between symphysis pubis, and anterior supe- nor iliac spine.

When did doctors start using stethoscopes?

Facts of stethoscope:-

And now , we know the history of stethoscope.The stethoscope can be used to listen to a variety of sounds to assist with the assessment and diagnosis of a patient.  These include lung, heart and bowel sounds.  The stethoscope is also routinely used in association with a sphygmomanometer to assess blood pressure by listening to blood flow sounds.

When using a stethoscope remember that the ear tips should point forwards in your ears to follow the natural path of your ear canals to ensure best acoustics.  Best practice when using a stethoscope is to use it at skin level and don’t forget to clean it after use to help control the risk of infection.

How to boost your self confidence ? In 10 Days .


Hii Friends !!💕 How to gain as well as Boost your self-confidence?Self confidence is essential part of humanity. A person with self confidence generally likes themselves, is willing to take risks to achieve their personal and professional goals , and thinks positively about the future . someone who lacks of self confidence. However is less likely to feel that they can achieve their goals, and tend to have perspective about themselves and what they hope to gain in life. The good news is that self confidence is something in  you can improve ! Building self confidence requires you to cultivate a positive attitude. about yourself and your social interactions. While also leaning to deal with any negative emotions that arises and practising greater self care . You should learn to set goals and take risks , as well, since meeting challenges can further improve your self confidence.


How to Look & Feel Confident

Confidence is actually a skill that you can develop-even if you can’t imagine how that could be possible for you right now…Boost your self confidence?


Negativity is your number one enemy. It’s the first thing you need to learn to deal with. You must stamp it out. I cannot stress this enough. Being Positive is an essential element
of self-confidence.



Lacking confidence often means having a very low opinion of yourself. There’s only one answer to this (and there’s no getting out of ft if you want to move forward) .you’ll need to learn to have self-love.


Good communication skills really are an essential step in learning how to gain confidence. These skills are a delicate balance between listening and speaking.



Knowing how you come across to people really matters. Most people get this wrong. They
assume they look and sound terrible, embarrassing even.Reconciling this is essential.


You must do the things that challenge you most. It’s impossible to get more confident if you just think about it. It takes courage to step out of your comfort zone. t is the right thing to do.



If you fail at something, try it again but approach it differently. Never avoid situations that you have failed at if they matter to you. Learn the mistakes and move on. This takes resilience.

Think of things you’re good at

Everyone has strengths and talents. What are yours? Recognising what you’re good at, and trying to build on those things, will help you to build confidence in your own abilities.


Set some goals

Set some goals and set out the steps you need to take to achieve them. They don’t have to be big goals; they can even be things like baking a cake or planning a night out with friends. Just aim for some small achievements that you can tick off a list to help you gain confidence in your ability to get stuff done.


Talk yourself up

You’re never going to feel confident if you have negative commentary running through your mind telling you that you’re no good. Think about your self talk and how that might be affecting your self-confidence. Treat yourself like you would your best friend and cheer yourself on.


Get a hobby

Stop Comparing Yourself to Others and boost your self confidence.Try to find something that you’re really passionate about. It could be photography, sport, knitting or anything else! When you’ve worked out your passion, commit yourself to giving it a go. Chances are, if you’re interested or passionate about a certain activity, you’re more likely to be motivated and you’ll build skills more quickly.



Too many very capable people lack faith in their own abilities. This stops them doing the things they really want to do. The main reason for this? A fear of failure. The thought of getting it wrong is enough to stop them doing it. Exercise boost your self-confidence.


This is all about the Self confidence information . now we tell you the Meaning of Depression and information click here.

Teeth : Incisors , Canine , Molars and Premolars

Teeth help a person use their mouth to eat, speak, smile and give shape of their face. Each type of tooth has name and specific function.

Teeth are made up from different layers :-
Enamel ,dentin , pulp and cementum. Enamel , which is hardest substance in body , is on outside of the tooth. The second layer dentin , which is softer than Enamel. And deepest layer inside the tooth is pulp. Which consist of nerves and blood vessels. Cementum is on root of tooth and is beneath to gums.

The study of teeth with respect to their number , arrangement , development etc is known as dentition.

Teeth :- 32 Teeth are present in buccal cavity of adult human being.Human dentition is described as thecodont , diphyodont and heterodont. It is called the codont type because each tooth is fixed in separate socket present in jaw bones by gomphosis type of joint. In our life time , we get only two sets of teeth, milk teeth this is called diphyodont dentition . We have four different type of teeth hense we are heterodont. Types of teeth incisors ( I ) , Canines (C) , Premolars (PM) and Molar ( M ) each half of each jaw has two incisors , one canine , two premolars and three molars .

What is Incisors?
Your 8 incisors teeth are located in front part of your mouth you have four of them in your upper jaw and four in your lower jaw. Incisors are shaped like small chisels.

What is Canines ?
Your four canine teeth sit next to incisors. You have two canine on the top of your mouth and two on the bottom. Canines have sharp, pointy surface for tearing food. The baby canine come in between the ages 16 months and 20 months.

What is Molars ?
Your 12 molars are biggeest and strongest teeth you have six on the top and six on the bottom. The main eight molars are sometimes divided into 6 years and 12 years molar , based on when typically grow in.

A tooth consists of the portion that projects above the gum called crown and root that is made up of two or three projections which are embeded in gun. A short neck connects the hardest substance of the body called enamel . Enamel is made up of calcium carbonate. Basic shape of tooth is derived from dentin , a calcified connective tissue . The dentin enclosed a cavity called pulp cavity. It is filled with connective tissue pulp. Pulp cavity has extension in the root of tooth called root canal . The Dentin of the root of tooth is covered by ceremtum . A bone like substance that attaches the root to surrounding socket in gum.

What is Depression ? : Causes , Symptoms and Treatment

Sadness , feeling down and having loss of interest in daily activities are familiar feelings for all of us but if they persist and affect our lives substantially the issue may be Depression.
A group of conditions associated with the elevation of lowering of persons mood such as Depression.

Depression is mood disorder that involve persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest.It is different from the mood fluctuations that people regularly experience as part of life. Depression is on going problem is an ongoing problem ,not a passing one . It consist of episodes during which the symbols last for at least 2 weeks . Depression can last for several weeks,months or years.

•What is Depression ?
Depression is common and serious medical illness that negatively affects how you feel the way you think and how you act. fortunately,it is also treatable.Depression causes feeling of sadness and /or loss of interest in activities once enjoyed .It can lead to variety of emotional and physical problems and can decrease person’s ability to function at work and at home.

•Sign and symptoms
The symptoms of Depression can include:-
• A depressed mood .
• reduced interest in activities once enjoyed.
• A loss of sexual desire.
• Changes in appetite.
• Unintentional weight loss or gain.
• Sleeping to much or too little.
• Agitation, restlessness up and down.
• slowed movement and speech.
• fatigue or loss of energy.
• Feeling of worthlessness or guilty.
• Difficulty thinking,Concentrating or making desicions.
• Recurrent thought of death or suicide, or an attempt at suicide.

• In female :-
Depression is nearly twice common among women as men , according to the centers for disease control and prevention.
Below are some symtoms of Depression that tend to appear move often in females .
• irritability
• anxiety
• fatigue
• ruminating
Also ,some types of Depression are unique to females ,such as
• Postpartum Depression
• Premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

• In males
Around 9% men in United state having feelings of Depression or anxiety. according to American psychological association.
Males with depression are more likely than females to drinks alcohol in excess , display anger,and engage in risk- taking as a result of the disorder .
Other symptoms of Depression in males :-
• Avoiding families and social situations.
• Working without a  Break
• Having Difficulty keeping up  with work and family responsibility .
• Controlling behaviour in relationship.

How Depression Treated ?
Depression is among the most treatable of mental disorders. Between 80% and 90%. Of people with depression eventually respond well to treatment almost all patients gain some relief from their symptoms.
Before a diagnosis or treatment  a health professional should conduct a through diagnostic evaluation. including an interview and possibly physical examination . In some cases , a blood test might be done make sure the depression is not due to medical condition like a thyroid problem. The evaluation is identify specific symptoms , medical and family history, cultural factors and environment factors to arrive at diagnosis and plan a course of action.

• Psychotherapy

• Drug treatment

• Medication

A group of conditions associated with the elevation of lowering of persons mood such as Depression.

Corona … Mask … No need to use!


It is unknown why people are moving around with masks.
The mortality rate of the new corona virus is only 5% today. That means if one hundred people are corona positive, one of them may die. The rate is much lower than the SARS and MERS (both of which were corona virus) in 3. Unnecessary information is being spread due to aggrieved media.
People’s ‘infodemic’ is more harmful than Corona’s ‘epidemic’.
Worldwide, the death toll from this disease does not include a child under the age of ten. Not only that, but nearly half of those found dead are either over fifty, or already suffering from respiratory illness. What does this mean …. So … the person who has good immune system does not get a simple infection and even if it is cured, it can be cured with cold.
In Wuhan, where the death rate was 17% a month and a half ago, it is 4% today … so controlling it is not that difficult.

Corona has arrived in our country … over seventy people are positive … no more death … that’s true! But for that to be panic all over the country is a symptom of the psyche.
      What seems even worse and weird is the people who turn their masks around. Putting a mask in the hospital is fine or compulsory but in other places it is not really a mask. Do you have a daily habit of masks, brothers and sisters? … No! Do you remind yourself or observe others … how often do you touch that mask? Speaking of which, while doing some work he does not know that the mask is winding down. While normal, we often apply the mask more often than we do not touch the mouth. Each time you touch the mask, you do not wash hands. How could they not have a virus on hand? That is, we are carrying the non-virulent virus to the nostrils.
The purpose of the mask is not to prevent the infection from being caused by another, but the main objective is to not let anyone get infected! If you really have some fever, cough, and shortness of breath, then wearing a mask is 3 percent needed.
    People who are terrified of Corona today will be exposed to many TB patients every day. Hundreds of traumatic illnesses or touching illnesses and hundreds of infected people come in contact with us daily.
Every day we come in contact with thousands of viruses and bacteria. Bus, autos, locals, public sanitary houses, hotels … water … air … soil … Many of the horrible viruses of Corona that we Indian people face every day. Your Immunity is very strong. There was no death in India when SARS exploded in 7 countries in the world in the 5th. Our population and survival patterns are so terrible that one week is enough to infect the entire country, but that doesn’t happen because our immune system is so strong.
Those who are infected will be cured … surely they will be cured. No vaccine is available yet, but it is not too difficult to control for symptoms.
     It’s best to have plenty of food before leaving the house for work … wash your hands … and don’t take a mask for five or five times the price … it’s no use!

Sahil Khan Workout and Diet plan

Workout :-

Day 1 : Monday: -Chest and Abs

Hanging leg raises: 4 arrangements of 30 reps

Exercise ball crunches: 4 arrangements of 30 reps

Crunches: 4 arrangements of 30 reps

Grade free weight press: 4 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Level seat hand weight press: 4 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Sledge quality level press: 4 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Sledge quality slope: 4 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Link hybrids: 4 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Day 2: Tuesday:

Standing calf raises: 4 arrangements of 20-25 reps

Leg press calf raises: 4 arrangements of 20-30 reps

Situated calf raises: 4 arrangements of 30 reps

Leg expansions: 4 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Weighted Squats: 3 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Hack squats: 3 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Leg squeezes: 7 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Lying leg twists: 3 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Solid leg dead-lift: 3 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Day 3 : Wednesday: Back and Abs

Turn around crunches: 4 arrangements of 20-30 reps

Roman seat crunches: 4 arrangements of 30 reps

Link rope crunches: 4 arrangements of 20-30 reps

Wide grasp pull-ups: 4 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Turn around grasp pull-downs: 3 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Ski lift lines: 3 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Turn around tear free weight push: 3 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Straight arm pull-downs: 7 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Sahil Khan Workout routine at Gym

Day 4: Thursday: Off

Day 5: Friday: -Shoulders and Abs

Turn around crunches: 4 arrangements of 20-30 reps

Hanging leg raises: 4 arrangements of 30 reps

Link rope crunches: 4 arrangements of 20-30 reps

Hand weight squeezes: 4 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Hand weight front raises: 4 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Hand weight or machine horizontal raises: 7 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Hand weight twisted around sidelong raises: 4 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Hand weight shrug: 4 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Invert peck decks: 7 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Day 6 : Saturday: -Triceps and Biceps

Rope press downs: 7 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Close hold seat press: 3 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Plunges: 3 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Lying augmentations: 3 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Straight bar link twists: 7 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Evangelist twists: 3 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Sledge twists: 3 arrangements of 10-15 reps

High link twists: 3 arrangements of 10-15 reps

Day 7: Sunday:Off

Diet :-

For Diet, Sahil Khan He eats a reasonable eating routine which comprises of 40% Carbs, 30% Proteins and 30% Fats. He attempts to drink in any event 2 liters of water day by day as water is significant for the body to flush out the poisons. As a weight lifter he maintains a strategic distance from any lousy nourishment and attempts to rest for at any rate 7 hours.

His Main Sources of Protein, Carbs and Fats are following:

Protein: Eat chicken bosom, wild salmon, turkey,egg white with two or three yellow

Carbs : Brown rice, sweet potatoes, white potatoes, red potatoes, entire wheat pasta, vegetables, for example, broccoli, cauliflower and asparagus.

Fats : Flax oil, almond spread, almonds, unsalted normal nutty spread.