Hey guys ! Do you know..?? Most Simple Mechanism of Breathing of Inspiration & Expiration , Volumes , Capacities The term respiration includes a complete process of taking in oxygen and giving out Carbondioxide. It includes mainly the phases, outside the cells, i.e. breathing and gaseous exchange along with gaseous transport.
Alternate inspiration and expiration together form the respiratory cycle. Healthy human breathes almost 12-16 times/min. (Ventilation rate). Spirometer is used to estimate volume of air involved in breathing movements.
Heart rate increases during inspiration and decreases during expiration. Human beings have the ability to increase the strength of inspiration and expiration with the help of additional muscles in the abdomen.
Most Simple Mechanism of Breathing with easy diagrams :-
The process by which air comes in and goes out of the lungs is called breathing. It is the process that speeds up the rate of gaseous exchange.
The terms respiration and breathing are not synonymous as breathing is a part of respiration.
Breathing includes two stages :-
During inspiration air containing oxygen is taken into the lungs while during expiration air containing more carbon-dioxide and water vapour is forced out of the lungs.
» Atmospheric air is taken in.
» Occurs when intra-pulmonary pressure is less than atmospheric pressure.
» Inspiration includes :
Contraction of diaphragm >Increases volume of thoracic chamber in antero- posterior axis
External intercostal muscles contract
Pulls ribs outwards and sternum upwards
Results in increase in volume of thoracic cavity in dorso-ventral axis
Results in increase in pulmonary volume
Lowers pressure in the lungs than atmospheric pressure
To fill this gap, air from outside rushes into lungs
» Foul air is released out. »Occurs when intra-pulmonary pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure.
relaxation of diaphragm and intercostal muscles
Relaxation of sternum
Decrease in volume of thoracic cavity
Decreases pulmonary volume
Increases intra-pulmonary pressure
Air from lungs rushes out through respiratory passage
Air rich in CO2 (mixed with slight O-) is exhaled out
Respiratory Volumes :-
1.Tidal Volume (TV):–
i.Volume of air inspired or expired during respiration. Approxi- mately 500mL.
ii.A healthy man can inspire or expire around normal 6000-8000mL of air per minute.
2.Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) :-
i. Volume of air a person can inspire during inspiration.
ii. It is forced It about 2500-3000mL.
3.Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) :-
i. Volume of air a person can expire by forcible expiration.
ii. It is about 1000-1100mL.
4.Residual Volume (RV) :-
i. Volume of air remaining in the lungs after forceful expiration.
ii. This averages 1100-1200mL.
1.Inspiratory Capacity (IC) :-
Amount of air a person can inspire after normal expiration.
IC =TV+ IRV
2.Expiratory Capacity (EC) :-
Total volume of air a person can expire after a normal inspiration.
EC =TV + ERV
3.Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) :-
It is the volume of air that will remain in the lungs after a normal expiration.
FRC = ERV +RV
4.Vital Capacity (VC) :-
The maximum volume of air a person can breathe in after a forced expiration or the maximum amount of air a person can breathe out after a forced inspiration.
VC = IRV +TV + ERV
5.Total Lung Capacity (TLC) : – Total volume of air accommodated in the lungs at the end of a forced inspiration.
TLC = RV + ERV + TV+IRV
or = VC +RV
or = FRC + IC
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