Top 10 Disorders of Respiratory System | Respiratory Anatomy

Hey ! Today I’m going to talk about the Top 10 Disorders of Respiratory System .The study of respiratory disease is known as Pulmonology. Respiratory disease any of the diseases and disorders of the airways and the lungs that affect human respiration.
Diseases of the respiratory system may affect any of the structures and organs that have to do with breathing including the nasal cavities, the pharynx (or throat), the larynx, the trachea (or windpipe), the bronchi and bronchioles, the tissues of the lungs, and the respiratory muscles of the chest cage.
Respiratory diseases can be classified in many different ways including by the organ or tissue involved by the type and pattern of associated signs and symptoms or by the cause of the Disease.

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Respiratory Disease

Top 10 Disorders of Respiratory system :-

1.Asthma :-
It is an allergic disorder, in which expiration becomes difficult. It is associated with bronchial obstruction or spasm (contraction) of smooth muscles characterised by the expiratory wheeze or whistling.

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Asthma Disease

2.Emphysema :
It is an irreversible distension of the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar sacs and alveoli. In this condition, the wall separating adjacent alveoli breakdown and air remains filled even after expiration. It develops mainly since tobacco (cigarette), smoking.

3.Asphyxia :-
Suffocation due to lack of oxygen and retention of carbon dioxide. It is produced by occlusion of the air way, acute hypercapnia and hypoxia developed together, i.e.
Asphyxia = Hypoxia + Hypercapnia.

4.Bronchitis :-
It is an inflammation of the bronchi and bronchioles. It is charecterised by hypertrophy (enlargement due to increase in size of cells) and hyperplasia (enlargement due to increase in reproduction rate of cells) of sero-mucous glands and goblet cells lining the bronchi. Its symptoms include regular coughing with thick greenish-yellow sputum that indicates the underlying infection, resulting in excessive secretion of mucus.

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Bronchitis

5.Cyanosis :-
Bluish or violet discolouration of skin and the mucous membrane. This develops due to the presence of excessive amount of deoxygenated haemoglobin.

6.Hay fever :-
It is an allergic disorder of nasal lining. It develops due to hypersensitivity to pollen grains or other foreign particles.

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Hey Fever

7.Atelectasis :-
It is an inability of lungs to expand at birth. This is mainly due to the deficiency of surfactant.
In normal cases, the surfactant (a phospholipid, lecithin) reduces tension at alveolar surface and allow the lungs to expand at birth.

8.Pleurisy :-
It is the inflammation of pleural membranes.

9.Occupational lung diseases (diseases of industrial workers) :-
Exposure to harmful particles, chemicals vapours or gases while at work can lead to a variety of health problems including diseases.

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Occupational lung diseases


(i) Anthracosis (pneumoconiosis of coal workers) :-
Proliferation of fibrous tissues in the lungs causing bronchitis and emphysema.

(ii) Silicosis :-
It occurs due to long exposure to dust containing silicon compounds. Workers of glass industry, potters, gold and copper miners develop progressive fibrosis in their lungs.

(iii) Asbestosis :-
It is due to inhalation of asbestos-fibres, which may result in cancer of pleura. Other diseases related to occupation are allergies, lung irritation, black lung (in coal workers), chronic Beryllium disease, byssinosis brown lung disease (in cotton and textile workers), etc

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