Hey guys ! Today I’m going to talk about the Community health. This is the sum total of all the programmes, which help in protection, maintenance and improvement of health of people. It is also defined as the branch of science that helps in promoting physical and mental health, preventing disease and prolonging lifespan through the organised community attempts.
The major community health services are:-
1.Health centres :-
These are the centres run by the governments to take care of the health of the people in cities, town and villages.
Health centres provide following activities
1.Environmental sanitation These are as follows :
(i) Treatment of domestic sewage by chemicals.
(ii) Prevention of air pollution.
(iii) Proper waste disposal through soak pits, composite pits, kitchen garden and smokeless chullah.
(iv) Providing supply of germ free and safe drinking care water.
(v) Elimination of breeding of insect vectors.
2.Control of communicable diseases These are as follows :
(i) Vaccination against the communicable diseases such as TB, measles, smallpox, whooping cough, diphtheria, polio, tetanus and cholera.
(ii) Careful treatment of diseased person.
(iii) Malaria eradication.
(iv) Regular supervision of food and trade.
(v) Eradication of disease spreading vectors.
(vi) Inoculation of water storing reservoirs by larvicidal fishes, plants, bacteria, etc.
(vii) Isolation of patients from eontagious disease.
3.Health education People should be provided education regarding transmission, prevention and mechanism of control of communicable diseases. It can be achieved through personal contact, posters, pamphlets, audio-visual aids, seminars, newspaper TV, radio, etc.
4.School dealt services These include
(i) Check up of children before admission and after then regular medical check up at definite interval of time.
(ii) Education regarding health should be included in syllabus.
(iii) Immunisation of the students from communicable diseases.
(iv) Clean classroom and fresh drinking water should be provided to the children.
5.Maternity and child health services These are as follows:
(i) Routine checking of pregnant women.
(ii) Care should be taken during delivery of child.
(iii) Training of midwife.
(iv) Prophylaxis against deficiency of vitamins and anaemia disease.
(v) Proper family planning.
6.Nutrition education These are as follows:
(i) To educate the people about the balanced diet.
(ii) To educate them about the various deficiency diseases, importance of green and yellow vegetation, availability of nutrients in common food.
7.Mental health :
It includes guidance to mentally ill persons.
8.Collection and cross checking of statistics:
Accurate picture of health conditions in an area can be obtained by accurate data of birth, death and infectious diseases.
2.National programmes :-
Some national programmes have been started by Indian Government to eradicate major communicable diseases general awareness, civic sense and willingness to help them are main schemes of these programmes.
These programmes are as under :-
- National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP)
- National Cholera Control Programme (NCCP)
- National Leprosy Control Programme (NLCP)
- National Smallpox Eradication Programme (NSEP)
- National Filaria Control Programme (NFCP)
- Blood bank It is a well developed specialised medical centre for collection, storage, processing and supply of blood. Fantus (1936) coined the term blood bank and established the first blood bank in Cooks Country Hospital, Chicago.
3.Functions of blood bank :-
These are as follows also
(i) To collect blood from the donors.
(ii) Screening of blood from pathogens.
(iii) Grouping and labelling of blood according to ABO and Rh-factor.
(iv) Preservation of blood. (v) Proper distribution of blood wherever required.
Sodium citrate is used to prevent clotting of blood in blood banks
Blood transfusion :-
It is the transfer of blood from an individual called donor to another individual called recipient. Blood can be transferred from a donor to a recipient of the same blood type without any complication. This is because there will be no antibodies present in the plasma of recipient which could cause agglutination of the cells being transfused.A healthy person can donate about 300 mL of blood without any ill effect.
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